First Blood In The Streets of Baltimore
By Gary Baker

Since the earliest days of the American colonies there had been significant political, religious, social and economic differences between the northern and southern regions of the United States. Throughout the early 1800's these differences had grown greater and greater causing a schism to develop between these two regions. Tensions between the two regions came to a head at 4:30 A.M. on April 12, 1861 when South Carolina militia under the command of General Pierre G. T. Beauregard opened fire on Fort Sumter, strategically located on an artificial island at the entrance to Charleston harbor. (1) After a thirty-four hour bombardment, Major Robert Anderson, U.S. Army, the commander of the Sumter garrison, agreed to surrender the Fort to General Beauregard. Present at the surrender ceremonies, held at noon on the 14th, were all of the eighty-four soldiers and forty-three laborers under Major Anderson's command. Remarkably all of Anderson's men had survived the bombardment with only minor injures. Ironically two of his men were tragically killed during the surrender ceremonies when a gun exploded. (2)

On April 15th newly elected President Abraham Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to serve for three months in order to quash the Southern rebellion. Two days later, in response to Lincoln's call to arms, the 700 uniformed and armed members of the 6th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, under the command of Colonel Edward F. Jones, left Boston for Washington amid the cheers of a jubilant crowd. In order to reach Washington, the 6th Massachusetts would have to pass through pro-southern Baltimore.

By 1860 Baltimore, Maryland, due to it's excellent deep water harbor and it's central location, had become the terminus for five separate railroads. Though these major arteries of steel, which connected much of the nation terminated at Baltimore, not one passed through the city. Due to local ordinances trains were not permitted to actually pass through town. The Northern Central Railroad for instance terminated at Bolton Hill station in northern Baltimore. The Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore terminated at President Street on the east side of town. And the Baltimore and Ohio stopped at the Camden Street Station on the southern edge of the city. This created numerous difficulties in moving cargo and passengers from one rail line to another. Depending on where passengers arrived in Baltimore, and what their destinations were, their options as to how they might reach the station of the railroad that was to carry them past Baltimore varied. In some cases the stations were close enough to walk from one to another. They could of course hire a carriage, and in some cases they simply remained in their cars while the cars were disconnected from the engine, hitched to a team of horses, and pulled through the city along rails laid specifically for that purpose. One such connection existed between the depots of the Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore line at President Street, and the Baltimore & Ohio depot near Camden Street..

While the 6th Massachusetts was making it's way toward Philadelphia on the 18th, four companies of the 25th Pennsylvania Volunteers, commanded by Major J.C. Pemberton, along with two companies of U.S. Artillery bound for Fort McHenry in Baltimore, left Harrisburg for Washington, D.C. by way of the North Central Railroad. Because of comments which had been made by the Northern press about forcibly keeping Maryland in the Union, local government officials thought it prudent to keep word of the pending arrival of Federal troops in Baltimore quiet. Despite their best efforts, word quickly spread that troops were coming, and crowds gathered at the Calvert and Bolton stations before the expected time of arrival of the Pennsylvania soldiers.

When the 25th Pennsylvania reached Bolton Station around 2:00 P.M., the streets were clogged. The soldiers dismounted their cars at the intersection of Cathedral and Howard Streets. formed up into column, and began their march toward Mount Clare Station, where fifteen freight cars awaited them. (3) The crowd greeted the soldiers with jeers, and hurrahs for President Davis and South Carolina. Before the situation got out of hand the Baltimore City Police arrived and formed two lines through which the troops marched while the mob pelted them with paving stones and bricks. Nickolas Biddle, a colored servant of Captain James Wren of the Washington Artillery of Pottsville, Pennsylvania, was struck in the head with a paving stone (4) becoming the first casualty of the regiment.

All along the route the crowd jostled and shoved the troops despite the efforts of the police, who managed to keep the demonstration from exploding into a full scale attack on the soldiers. When the column reached Mount Clare the troops quickly boarded their train, while some members of the mob climbed on top of the cars, yelling and shouting, and others in the crowd pelted the rail cars with stones, bottles, and bricks.

That night a meeting was held at the Taylor Building on Fayette Street, by the State-Rights Convention. During the meeting very strong opinions were expressed concerning the passage of Federal troops through Maryland to suppress Maryland's sister states to the south. Many citizens saw the passage of troops through the state as a violation of the state's sovereignty. (5) Fired by exclamations in the Northern press that Maryland must be held at all cost, many of Maryland's citizens saw the passage of Federal troops through Maryland as an attempt by the government to occupy the state.

The following morning another public meeting was held by the National Volunteer Association, where compelling speeches were made in support of the South. Also that morning the Mayor of Charlestown, Virginia, sent word to John W. Garrett, president of the B. & O. Railroad, requesting that no Federal troops be carried on the main line, and that munitions from the Federal Arsenal at Harpers Ferry not be transported over the B. & O. The North Central Railroad was also concerned about activities in Baltimore and sent a message to the governor of Pennsylvania stating that emotions were so fierce in Baltimore that no more troops could be transported over that railroad.

The honorable Thomas Holliday Hicks, Governor of Maryland, issued a proclamation to the state in which he exclaimed that: "The emergency is great. The consequences of a rash step will be fearful. It is the imperative duty of every true son of Maryland to do all that can tend to arrest the threatened evil. I therefore counsel the people, in all earnestness, to withhold their hands from whatever may tend to precipitate us into the gulf and ruin gaping to receive us.

"I counsel the people to abstain from all heated controversy upon the subject; to avoid all things that tend to crimination and recrimination; to believe that the origin of our evil day may well be forgotten now, by every patriot, in the earnest desire to avert from this fruit."

When the 6th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers arrived in Philadelphia they were warned that their passage through Baltimore would be resisted. Before their train departed for Baltimore, Colonel Jones ordered "his men to ignore verbal abuse, but, if fired on, to take aim and" (6) "be sure to drop him." (7) Around 10:30 A.M. the thirty-five cars, transporting the 1,200 volunteers of the 6th Massachusetts and a regiment of 1,000 unarmed Pennsylvania volunteers, still in civilian clothes, and under the command of General John Small, arrived in Baltimore at the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad's President Street station. Fearing the worst, Colonel Jones ordered his men to load their weapons. (8)

Within fifteen minutes of the train's arrival crowds were swarming through the streets of Baltimore toward Pratt Street, over which they knew that horse teams would have to pull the troop laden rail cars. By 11:30 A.M. a large crowd had gathered on the track near the Jones' Falls Bridge cheering Jefferson Davis and the Confederacy, and was waiting there when the first nine cars, carrying seven companies of the 6th Massachusetts, came down Pratt Street. A shout went up and the crowd booed and hissed the troops, but allowed them to pass unmolested. Four companies of the 6th Massachusetts, companies C., D., I., & L., under the command of Captain Follansbee, (9) had been cut off from the main body by the crowd. When the cars transporting the last four companies approached the bridge a man stepped out of the crowd and hurled a rock at the first car. The crowd responded by pelting the car with stones. "In an instant they were flying thick and fast." (10) The frightened driver unhitched his team of horses, hitched them up to the rear of the car and drove it back to President Station.

The crowd, which had swelled to eight hundred, procured picks and shovels and began to tear up a fifty yard stretch of the street so that no more cars could pass. Paving stones were piled in the center of the street and at least eight large anchors from a near by wharf were collected and added to the stones along with piles of sand.

Hearing that the remaining troops were preparing to form up in column and march to Camden Station, a cry went up "to the depot" (11) and the crowd headed east along Pratt Street toward President Station. As the mob moved along Pratt Street it's numbers swelled. When it reached the neighborhood of the depot several hundred more people, wondering what all the excitement was about, joined the crowd. The mob surrounded the train and sent up shout after shout for the Confederacy. About fifteen minutes passed in this fashion when suddenly members of the crowd decided to force their way onto the train, but the arrival of a police detachment prevented the attack.

Once the police were on the scene the troops were given the order to alight from the train. As they did so, passing single file into the crowd they were hooted and hissed at, and jostled about. But the troops managed to make their way to the footway along the depot where they formed up in a double file. As they were forming up a group of about a hundred men appeared near the station. In the midst of the new arrivals was a man bearing a pole, upon which had been tied a Confederate flag. * (12)* (According to Maryland lore Hettie Cary. a Baltimore socialite and Southern supporter supposedly created the first St. Andrew's Cross flag with twelve stars for General Beauregard, which later became the Confederate Battle Flag, but it is unclear if Scharf is referring to the St. Andrews flag, the Bonnie Blue Flag or the Palmetto Flag of South Carolina.)

The men made their way through the crowd toward the troops. As they did so shouts of enthusiasm went up from the crowd. But apparently not every one present was a Southern supporter because someone grabbed the flag and tore it nearly in half. The enraged flag bearer grabbed the man who had torn his banner by the throat, and would no doubt have killed him if the police had not intervened. The shredded flag was retied to the pole, and the crowd saluted it with cheers.

The mob then returned to taunting the soldiers. But the Massachusetts troops, many of them tough Irishmen, pushed their way through the crowd and headed toward President Street. But the men who had brought with them the secessionist flag made a bold stand in front of the troops, forcing them to turn about and head for the opposite end of the station. Some one in the crowd yelled "head them off' and a large body of people rushed to the southern end of the station to block the passage of the troops. Surrounded, the troops were unable to move for several minutes. During this time several unlucky members of the regiment were pulled into the crowd and pummeled. The regiment formed up four a breast, and with the aide of the police forced their way through the crowd. The group carrying the flag managed to make their way to the front of the column, and for some two blocks forced the Federal troops to march behind the Confederate flag. At the rear of the column the mob separated some of the troops from their comrades and attacked them. Were it not for the diligent efforts of the police many of these soldiers would have been bludgeoned to death.

About a football field's length from the station a second attempt was made on the Confederate flag. This infuriated members of the crowd who began to pelt the troops with stones. One soldier named William Patch, having been struck in the back by a huge paving stone fell to the ground. A portion of the mob descended on him, beating him unmercifully. His musket was wrenched from his hands and borne off into the crowd, only to be handed over to the police moments later. An officer gave the order to double time and the troops began to run rapidly down the street. At the corner of President and Stiles the crowd pressed in on the soldiers and knocked more of them to the ground. The troops ran across the Pratt Street Bridge to Commerce Street, where another large crowd had gathered behind the barricades which had been erected earlier. The citizens completely blocked the path of the advancing soldiers. As the troops approached, the crowd roared in anger and began to pelt them with paving stones.

Finding his men surrounded, being pummeled by stones and insults, the hostile crowd dragging members of his command off to beat them, Colonel Jones gave the order for his men to open fire. Shots rang out. As wounded citizens fell to the ground the crowd wavered and then gave way to the troops who now surged forward with fixed bayonets. The troops moved quickly along Pratt Street toward Camden Station. Baltimore's Mayor, George W. Brown joined the head of the column as it made it's way to Mount Claire. (13) During the confrontation four soldiers had been killed and thirty-six wounded, twelve civilians were also killed and an unknown number were wounded. (14) Immediately after the shooting, Marshal George P. Kane, head of the Baltimore City Police, with about fifty policeman rushed in behind the troops and formed a line to protect them. Ironically Kane was a secessionist. Two of his sons would later join Mosby's Rangers, and he would eventually be arrested because of his political views. But as a policeman Kane saw it as his duty to protect these troops even though they opposed his own personal beliefs.

At the intersection of Pratt and Charles Streets a citizen shot a soldier by the name of Andrew Robbins in the back of the neck.. Robbins was quickly carried into the drug store of Mr. Jesse S. Hunt, where he was cared for by a Doctor Dunbar. Shots continued to ring out from the crowd and from second story windows as the troops rushed toward Camden Street. Once they reached the station the troops quickly boarded the freight cars, and by 1:30 P.M. were on their way out of mob town. As it so happened, one Mr. Robert W. Davis of the firm of Paymer, Davis & Company, dry good merchants on Baltimore Street, was inspecting some property he hoped to buy along Eutaw Street, near where present day Oriole Park at Camden Yards stands. Seeing the train full of Federal troops some youngsters made cheers for the Confederacy. "Mr. Davis laughingly shook his fist at the train as it passed, all unconscious of any difficulty having occurred in the city. One of the soldiers ran his gun out of the window, and taking deliberate aim at Mr. Davis, shot him." (15) He died shortly afterwards.

Around 2:00 P.M. the crowd, hearing that a regiment from New York was due to arrive, rushed back to President Station. There they discovered fourteen additional rail cars containing the regimental band of the 6th Massachusetts, and 1000 members of the Pennsylvania "Washington Brigade," who had not moved from their train. The mob attacked the cars and proceeded to smash in all the windows of the train, wounding several soldiers with flying glass. After the windows had been broken out the crowd began hurling rocks and stones into the cars. Marshall Kane, along with General Egerton of the Maryland militia arrived and announced that the Pennsylvania troops would soon be returning to Philadelphia. The crowd withdrew, but soon became impatient and a second attack was made on the train, during which about twenty soldiers were wounded. According to the "Daily Exchange April 20" the crowd "poured in upon them (the band) a shower of stones, broken iron and other missiles, wounding some severely, and demolishing their instruments. Some of the miscreants jumped upon the roof of the car, and with With the main bar of iron beat a hole through it, while others were calling for powder to blow then all up in a heap."

During the second attack on the train a crowd of Unionist poured out of Mechanics row, the area that is now known as Little Italy, into the mob of secessionist. The Pennsylvania volunteers and the band scampered out of the rail cars, and a general melee ensued. Shortly after 2:30 P.M. the train departed the city.

A joint communication by Mayor Brown and Maryland's Governor Holliday Hicks was sent to President Lincoln: -

"Sir:-A collision between the citizens and the Northern troops has taken place in Baltimore, and the excitement is fearful. Send no troops here. We will endeavor to prevent all bloodshed. A public meeting of citizens has been called, and the troops of the State have been called out to preserve the peace. They will be enough." (16) Hicks and Brown also dispatched representatives to Washington to meet with President Lincoln. They carried letters for President Lincoln from both Governor Hicks and Mayor Brown requesting that further troop movements through Baltimore be halted because "the people are exasperated to the highest degree by the passage of troops," (17) Brown ended his letter by stating that if further troops attempted to pass through his city "the responsibility for the bloodshed will not rest on me."

At 4:00 P.M. Brown and Hicks, along with a number of prominent citizens of the city held a town meeting at Monument Square. The tone of the speeches called for moderation. That same evening the "American " newspaper called for all of Baltimore's citizens to unite, "We must agree first to secure the re-establishment of harmony among ourselves, and all then join in whatever measures may be determined upon."

A number of weapons belonging to the 6th Massachusetts were discovered in a rail car by the police and confiscated by the city for use in it's defense. Later that evening the board of police met and decided that it would be impossible for additional Northern troops to enter the city without bloodshed. The members present were unanimous in their decision that it was their responsibility to protect the city and State by preventing any further troop movements through Maryland. To effect this it was decided that railroad bridges north of the city should be destroyed. When word came that night that more troops were to enter Baltimore via the Northern Central Railroad, and that there was a possibility that some troops had already arrived at Perryville, where rail cargoes were ferried across the Susquehanna, the board decided to act. Marshal Kane was sent to see the Governor, who was staying at Mayor Brown's home. Kane informed Governor Hicks that within a few short hours a large body of troops, no doubt aware of the day's events and inflamed with resentment, would enter Baltimore. The Governor, though he would later deny it, supposedly gave his permission to burn the railroad bridges of the North Central and Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore Railroads, effectively cutting Baltimore off from the North..

Marshal Kane returned to the office of Charles Howard, president of the police board, and informed him of the Governor's consent. Necessary orders were given and messengers were sent out into the night to collect the men necessary to carryout the operation. One such messenger arrived shortly after midnight at Ravenhurst, the beautiful Victorian home of Isaac Ridgeway Trimble in north central Baltimore County. Trimble was Superintendent of the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad and a Colonel in the state militia. The messenger who awakened him presented Colonel Trimble the following order:

Baltimore, 20 April 1861, 12 1/2 A.M.

By the authority of the Governor of Maryland and for the protection of the City of Baltimore, I hereby direct Col. Isaac Trimble to proceed up the Philadelphia R.R. and break down the bridges thereof up to the Susquehanna River, and also require all persons to refrain from opposition thereto. George William Brown Mayor of Baltimore (18)

When the last train from Philadelphia arrived at the President Street Station around 3:00 A.M., Trimble, commanding a contingent of a militia unit known as the City Guards and a detachment of police officers, boarded the train and took command of it. The train was then taken north to the Bush River where the bridge there was burned. The train then moved to the Gunpowder River where that bridge was burned as well. Along the way Trimble periodically stopped his train and had telegraph poles along the tracks torn down.

Trimble's party was unable to destroy the bridge at Back River so they moved on to the Susquehanna. There they hoped to cross over to Perryville and scuttle the ferry boat "Maryland." But the rumor about additional Federal troops moving into the state was true. Their presence in Perryville dissuaded Trimble from crossing the river. Several months later the sixty year old Trimble would cross another river, the Potomac and join the Confederate Army. He would rise to the rank of General and lead a brigade under Stonewall Jackson during Jackson's Valley Campaign. In July of 1863 Trimble would rejoin the Army of Northern Virginia after convalescing from a leg wound he received at Second Manassas, and command one of the divisions that participated in Pickett's Charge.

At about the same time that Trimble was burning railroad bridges in eastern Baltimore and Harford Counties, a contingent of the Towson Guards under the command of Captain Charles Ridgely was burning railroad bridges of the North Central Railroad. Among Ridgely's men were a number of prominent young Marylanders. One young aristocrat named Harry Gilmor would later become a scout for "Stonewall" Jackson during his Valley Campaign, and eventually command his own battalion of partisan rangers. Also among the Towson Guards was John Merryman. For his participation in the bridge burnings, Merryman would be held at Fort McHenry without trial, sparking a bitter dispute between Supreme Court Justice Taney and the Lincoln administration concerning the United States Constitution's writ of habeas corpus, which insures that no American citizen will be illegally held against their will, or held without trial. Luckily for Captain Ridgely he was the son of one the richest men in the United States. His wealth and prominence were able to keep him out of prison. But he was restricted to his family estate of Hampton, north of Towson for the duration of the war.

Marshall Kane realized that burning the bridges was not enough to stop Federal troops from passing through the city. If Baltimore was to become the focal point of Federal troops passing through the state to the District of Columbia, then Baltimore needed a strong military presence in the city to keep order and to deter Federal troops from occupying the city. To this end Kane contacted several of the militia units scattered throughout the state. One such militia unit, the Frederick Company, was commanded by Captain Bradley T. Johnson, a local lawyer and politician. Johnson had several days before offered his assistance to Kane. Kane wired Johnson: "Streets red with Maryland blood. Send expresses over the mountains of Maryland and Virginia for the riflemen to come without delay." (19) Within a month of the riots Johnson and most of his men would be at Harper's Ferry organizing what would eventually become the 1st Maryland Volunteer Infantry, C.S.A. Johnson would rise from company commander to lead the regiment, and the 2nd Maryland Infantry as well. He would eventually become a Brigadier General and command the 1st Maryland Cavalry. By 7:00 P.M. seventy members of Bradley's company were on board a Baltimore & Ohio train bound for Baltimore. They arrived in the morning, unloaded their horses and rode to Monument Square, where they were joined by the Pikesville Forest Rangers under the command of Captain Wilson C. Nicholas, and part of Captain Charles Ridgely's cavalry.

John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry had led to the organization of the "Maryland Guard" Battalion, 53rd Regiment of Infantry, Maryland Militia in the winter of 1859-60. Its purpose was to serve as a trained reserve to assist civil authorities in preserving law and order. On the afternoon of April 19th, the Regiment's Armory at Carroll Hall on the corner of Baltimore and Calvert streets was a buzz with activity. A double line of troops with fixed bayonets stood outside the armory to keep the crowd growing around it from forcing their way into the building and appropriating the battalion's weapons.

Word reached Easton on the 20th that Federal troops had clashed with citizens of Baltimore. A crowd quickly gathered at the Court House where they cheered pro-southern speakers. Uniformed members of the Town Guard, Easton Band and Easton Horse Guard, who had been drilling near by, joined in, giving the event a military air to it. Thomas P. Williams, a wealthy North Carolinian in the crowd offered to charter the steamer Pioneer, which had brought news of the riot, and pay the expenses of any volunteers who wished to assist the besieged citizens of Baltimore. About 100 men volunteered. Arriving in Baltimore they found that the police, at least for the moment, had calmed the city.

A force of some 2600 Pennsylvania volunteers marched into Maryland and came as far south as Cockeysville, where they encamped. News of their arrival spread through Baltimore, some fifteen miles to the south, like a wild fire. The ringing of church bells for morning service was joined by the long roll of drums from local armories. Many men rushed from the churches to the armories. By 11:00 A.M. Holliday Street and several near by streets were packed with a mass of citizens and soldiers. The men were quickly enrolled into companies of forty men each, elected their officers and were issued arms.

Numerous citizens who were not part of the local militia reported to the Marshall's office with revolvers, knives and shot guns. Marshall Kane organized these men as un-uniformed volunteers under the command of Colonel Trimble. By 2:00 P.M. several cannon had been moved as far north as Greenmount Avenue. Senator Anthony Kennedy and Representative J. Morrison Harris of Maryland, with General Howard left Washington and met with General George C. Wynkoop, commander of the Pennsylvania troops, and convinced him to return to Harrisburg.

Both the Northern and Southern Press had a field day with the events that occurred in Baltimore between the 18th and 20th of April. The Northern papers called it a riot, insurrection, and treasonist. The Southern papers called it a massacre, and were quick to point out the relationships between a similar skirmish that had been fought eight-five years to day earlier in Lexington, Massachusetts, when British troops had encountered the Minute Men while seeking to confiscate weapons and gun powder. Maryland, whose Unionist Governor had tried to steer a neutral course during the closing days of peace, had drawn first blood.

After several days Baltimore settled down. Northern troops occupied the city in early

May, and many Marylanders like Bradley Johnson and Isaac Trimble, who supported the South, made their way across the Potomac and offered their services to the Confederacy. In all an estimated 20,000 Maryland men would fight for the Confederacy. But by war's end some 40,000 Marylanders would serve the Union. In Maryland, the war that divided a nation divided neighbors, friends and families.

Residing in Louisiana, where he was a teacher, Marylander James Ryder Randall read an account of the Baltimore Riot in the "Delta" newspaper on April 23rd. Listed among the dead civilians he found the name of a close and dear friend. That night he sat down and wrote a poem which he called "My Maryland." The poem quickly became a popular tune. In Baltimore, two belle's of Baltimore society Jennie and Hettie Cary changed the name to "Maryland My Maryland," and set it to the tune of a Yale college song. Before setting the song to type, Charles Ellerbrock, an employee of the printer, substituted the college song for the current tune. The song became popular through out the South, and it was so popular in Maryland that the song was outlawed. It became illegal to play it or even own copies of sheet music to the song. In 1939 this illegal tune became Maryland's official State song.

(1) Current, Richard N., Chief Editor, Encyclopedia of the Confederacy, Volume 1, Simon & Schuster, New York, N.Y., 1993. (2) IBID (3) Scharf, Col. Thomas J., Chronicles of Baltimore (4) Toomey, Daniel Carroll, The Civil War In Maryland, Toomey Press, Baltimore, Maryland, 1983. (5) Scharf, Col. Thomas J, Chronicles of Baltimore (6) Toomey, Daniel Carroll, The Civil War In Maryland, Toomey Press, Baltimore, Maryland, 1983. (7) Official Records of the War of the Rebellion, Series I, Vol 2, p7, Government Printing Offices, Washington, D.C., 1891. (8) Scharf, Col. Thomas J, Chronicles of Baltimore (9) Toomey, Daniel Carroll, The Civil War In Maryland, Toomey Press, Baltimore, Maryland, 1983. (10) Scharf, Col. Thomas J, Chronicles of Baltimore (11) IBID (12) IBID (13) Brown, George W., Baltimore and the 19th of April, 1861, Baltimore, 1887 pp 46-53. (14) IBID (15) Scharf, Col. Thomas J, Chronicles of Baltimore (16) Brown, George W., Baltimore and the 19th of April, 1861, Baltimore, 1887 pp 46-53. (17) Scharf, Col. Thomas J, Chronicles of Baltimore, quoting Mayor George W. Brown. (18) Scharf, Thomas J., History of Maryland, Volume III, Tradition Press, Hatboro, Pa., 1967. (19) Scharf, Col. Thomas J, Chronicles of Baltimore

Additional Source Material:

Newman, Harry Wright, Maryland and the Confederacy, (Published by Author), Annapolis, Maryland, 1976. Kuman, Frederic, The Free State of Maryland-A History of the State and It's People 1634-1941, The Historical Record, Baltimore, Maryland.




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