A Civil War Biography

John Adams Dix

Dix was born 24 July 1798 in Boceawn, New Hampshire. He served under his father during the War of 1812 becoming an ensign at age 14. He resigned from the service in 1828 and entered business in Cooperstown, New York.

He served as state adjutant general, state school superintendent and a member of the Albany Regency. In 1845 he entered the US Senate serving until 1850. After leaving the Senate he practiced law in New York and was president of two railroads. In 1859 President James Buchanan appointed Dix postmaster of New York City.

In 1861 he became Secretary of the Treasury. Dix was commissioned a major general of volunteers on 16 May 1861 thus he outranked al other volunteer officers. He commanded the departments of Annapolis then Pennsylvania in 1861, the Middle Department in 1862 and the Department of Virginia in 1862 and 1863, the Department of the East until the end of the war. He was responsible for suppressing the New York draft riots.

After resigning in 1865 he was appointed minister to France. He was elected governor of New York in 1872. Failing to be reelected Dix retired. He died 21 April 1879 in New York City.

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