View single post by Hellcat
 Posted: Tue Apr 5th, 2011 06:26 am
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Root Beer Lover

Joined: Tue Nov 15th, 2005
Location: USA
Posts: 981

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According to the Library of Congress Civil War Desk Reference the most commonly used muskets and rifles in the Federal Army were:

American Made

U.S. Rifle, Model 1841 - .54 caliber muzzle-loading percussion rifle, populary known as "Mississippi" or "Jaeger" rifle; 25,296 manufactured at Harpers Ferry between 1841 and 1855; 68,000 by private contractors; many rerifled to .58 caliber and equipped with bayonets between 1855 and 1862.

U.S. Rifle-Musket, Model 1855 - .58 caliber muzzle-loading rifle; 47,115 manufactured at Springfield, 1857-1861; 12,158 manufactured at harpers Ferry, 1859-1861.

US Rifle-Musket, Model 1861 ("1861 Springfield") - .58 caliber muzzle-loading percussion rifle; 265,129 manufactured at Springfield, 1861-1863; 643,439 delivered by private contractors, 1861-1865. A variation, the "Special Model 1861," designed by Samuel Colt, was a hybrid of Enfield and Springfield patterns.

U.S. Rifle-Musket, Models 1863 and 1864 -
.58 caliber muzzle-loading percussion rifle; 255,040 of these models produced at Springfield, 1863-1865.

British Made

Muskets, Patterns 1839 and 1842 - .753 caliber, muzzle-loading smoothbore; 4,000 imported by Charles Bulkley for sale to U.S. Government; unknown quantities purchased by the U.S. and Confederate governments.

Rifled Musket, Pattern 1853 - .577 caliber; manufactured by Royal Small Arms Factory at Enfield, England, and by Belgian and British contractors; nearly 16,000 manufactured by Robbins & Lawrence, Windsor, Vermont; issued to U.S. troops during the Civil War.

Enfield Sergeants Rifle and Naval Rifle, Patterns 1856, 1858, and 1860 - .577 caliber, used same ammunition as rifle-musket; manufactured by private gun makers in London; approximately 8,000 imported during the Civil War.

Enfield Volunteer Rifle - .577 caliber; similar to rifle-musket.

Other European Made

Converted Infantry Musket, Models 1798, 1807, and 1828 (Austrian) - .71 caliber, muzzle-loading smoothbores converted to percussion.

Lorenz Rifle Musket, Model 1854 (Austrian) - . 54 caliber muzzle-loading percussion rifle.

Prussian Rifle Musket, Model 1839/55 - .69 caliber

Prussian Jaeger Short Rifle, Model 1835/47 - .58 caliber, muzzle-loading percussion rifle.

Converted Infantry Musket, Model 1822 (French) - .69 and .71 caliber muzzle-loading smoothbores converted to percussion.

Infantry Musket, Models 1842, 1853, and 1857 (French) - .70 and .71 caliber, muzzle-loading smoothbores converted to percussion.

Short rifle (Carabine) Model 1842; Short Rifle (Carabine a tige) Models 1846 and 1853; Short rifle (Carabine de Vincemmes) Model 1859 (French) - .69 and .70 caliber muzzle-loading percussion rifles.

Now Philip Katcher in The Complete Civil War states that between January 1, 1861 and June 30, 1866 the US Army purchased 670,617 rifled muskets. It should be noted that not all were Model 1861s as the paragraph in which he gives this purchase figure he discusses the Model 1861 and 1863s being produced in the Springfield Armory and at 22 private contractors all to the same exact specification. On the Enfield he says the US Army purchased some 428,292 over the course of the war. Furthermore, the Pattern 1856 rifles purchased by the U.S. Army are supposed to have been just slightly higher than listed above according to Katcher, thirty-four rifles higher. On purchases from other nations he lists the following numbers (though not models) from January 1, 1861 to June 30, 1866:
  • Austiran made rifles: 226,294
  • Belgian made rifles: 57,467
  • Prussian made rifles: 59,918
  • French made rifles: 14,250
  • Itailian made rifles: 5,995
Now Katcher does provide this look into a possible makeup for regiments in terms of rifles. Discussing that men in the same regiment could be widely equipped with a variety of weapons he discusses how in 1862 one particular Illinois regiment (the regiment isn't listed) had 96 .58 Model 1855 or 1861 rifled muskets, four .577 Pattern 1853 rifled muskets, 143 .69 Model 1842 muskets which had then been rifled (as he specifies that they had been rifled I'm assuming it was a conversion from smoothbore), 72 Belgian made .69 rifled muskets, 22 .58 Austrian made rifles, and eleven .54 Austrian made rifles. All this in the last quarter of the year. In another instance Company B of the 72 Pa Volunteers were recorded as having the following on March 31, 1863:
  • 20 Springfields (unknown model year)
  • 17 Enfields (unknown model year)
  • 4 Belgian made rifles (unknown caliber)
  • 1 .58 Austrian made rifle (unknown model year)

Last edited on Tue Apr 5th, 2011 06:27 am by Hellcat

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