Among many on a ship (or boat, depending on the type of vessel), Chief Boatswains Mate has another name - GOD. I can guarantee you I was never one, but was certainly taken to task by enough of them. Technically, all officers outrank them. Realistically, very few officers are stupid enough to talk down to them. About the only thing scarier than a CBM is a Senior or Master Chief BM. What did you need to know?
Very sorry, appears I misunderstood - I thought you were asking about modern day. It appears the Chief PO rank didn't start till after the Civil War. From the Navy's website:
Petty Officers in our Navy got their first rank insignia in 1841 when they began wearing a sleeve device showing an eagle perched on an anchor. Some Petty Officers wore the device on their left arms while others wore it on their right. All wore the same device. Specialty or rating marks did not appear officially until 1866 but they seem to have been in use for several years previously. Regulations sometimes serve to give formal status to practices already well established.
In 1885 the Navy recognized it three classes of Petty Officers--first, second and third--and in the next year let them wear rank insignia of chevrons with the points down under a spread eagle and rating mark. The eagle faced left instead of right as it does today.
The present Petty Officer insignia came about in 1894 when the Navy established the Chief Petty Officer rank and gave him the three chevrons with arc and eagle. The first, second and third class Petty Officers also began wearing the insignia they do today.
Saw your affiliation with the USS Tahoma. I've come across that ship before in my researches here in Tampa, Florida. USS Tahoma threw some shells into downtown Tampa in Oct.1863[?] and, IIRC, covered a landing of some Union troops [including Colored Troops] to raid up the Hillsborough River. They sank two of Capt. James McKay's blockade runners -- they took cattle to Havana and brought back gold, medicines, et al. McKay got caught by the US Navy and was coerced to carry materiel to Key West and other Union outposts on east and west coast Florida in order to stay out of the brig.