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Clement Vallandigham... - Other People of the Civil War - The Participants of the War - Mikitary & Civilian - Civil War Interactive Discussion Board
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 Posted: Sun May 26th, 2013 05:33 am
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Texas Defender
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  A highly controversial figure during the Civil War was an Ohio politician named Clement L. Vallandigham. Mr. Vallandigham was a lawyer and the editor of a newspaper. He was a member of the Ohio State Legislature during the 1840s.

  In 1858, Mr. Vallandigham won election as a member of the U.S. House of representatives, and he was re-elected in 1860. At that time, he was a supporter of Stephen A. Douglas, though he did not support Mr. Douglas' idea of: "Popular sovereignty."

  Mr. Vallandigham was a severe critic of Mr. Lincoln and his policies. He believed that the Federal Government had no right to interfere with the institution of slavery. He also believed that states had the right to secede from the Union. He did not believe that the Federal Government had the right to conquer the CSA militarily.

  Mr. Vallandigham supported the ill-fated Crittenden Compromise and opposed every military bill, leading some to charge that he wished the CSA to win the war. He gave incendiary speeches denouncing Mr. Lincoln's encroachment on civil liberties of citizens. He proposed an armistice between the opposing sides. He was highly critical of the Emancipation Proclamation, saying that it evolved the war into a war to benefit the Negro.

  Due in part to re-districting, Mr. Vallandigham lost his seat in the 1862 midterm election. He was outraged by General Ambrose Burnside's General Order Number 38. (At that time, General Burnside commanded the Department of the Ohio). General Burnside declared that he would not tolerate anyone: "Declaring sympathy for the enemy." Vallandigham responded by giving a speech on 01 May 1863 saying that the liberty of U.S. citizens was being violated for: "King Lincoln" to free the slaves.

  General Burnside responded to this by having Mr. Vallandigham arrested on 05 May. He was charged with violation of General Order Number 38, and tried by a military court. Vallandigham was found guilty and ordered to be confined at Ft. Warren. A great protest against this ensued. Prominent citizens such as NY Governor Horatio Seymour and NJ Governor Joel Parker spoke out against General Burnside. Burnside's response was to suppress the NY WORLD. Mr. Lincoln wrote letters supporting the actions of General Burnside. (In February of 1864, the USSC declined to intervene in the case (ex parte Vallandigham) as habeas corpus had been suspended by the Congress the previous year).

  Mr. Lincoln decided to deport Mr. Vallandigham to Confederate territory.(Of course, Vallandigham wasn't trusted by the Confederates.) On this date in 1863, he was brought into Confederate lines in Tennessee. He was able to travel to Richmond, then to Wilmington, NC, then to Bermuda, and finally to Canada.

  From Canada, Mr. Vallandigham declared himself a candidate for governor of Ohio. He won the Democrat nomination, but lost the election, receiving about 40% of the vote. He actually attended the 1864 Ohio Democrat convention in a disguise that fooled no one. Mr. Lincoln decided to ignore his presence.

  Mr. Vallandigham openly attended the Democrat National Convention of 1864 as a delegate from Ohio. He promoted the peace plank of the party's platform. Initially, he supported the candidacy of General McClellan, but withdrew his support when McClellan repudiated the peace plank of the platform.

  Mr. Vallandigham was involved with a Copperhead organiztion called the Sons of Liberty, which had evolved out of the Knights of the Golden Circle. During this time, some members of that organization were tried for treason by military tribunals. One of these men, Lambdin P. Milligan, filed suit to protest being tried by a military court. The case finally reached the USSC after the war ended (ex parte Milligan (1866)). The Court declared that it was unconstitutional to try citizens by military tribunals when the civilian courts were in operation.

  After the war, Mr. Vallandigham was not successful in regaining political office, and he resumed his law practice. In 1871, in Lebanon, Ohio, while trying a court case, he accidently shot himself with a pistol. His client was acquitted, but Vallandigham's wound proved fatal.

  Clement Laird Vallandigham Biography Page

  Clement Vallandigham's deportation to the CSA prompted the author, Edward Everett Hale to write a short story titled: "The Man Without A Country" in 1863. It was published in the ATLANTIC MONTHLY in December of that year.

The Man Without a Country - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia    Mr. Hale was the nephew of the famous orator and statesman, Edward Everett. He was also the grand nephew of the Revolutionary War hero, Nathan Hale.

EDITING:

  Here is  an explanation of General Order Number 38, and some of the events that transpired because of it:

General Order No. 38 - Ohio History Central


Last edited on Fri May 31st, 2013 12:14 am by Texas Defender



 Posted: Tue May 28th, 2013 02:48 am
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That's interesting. I had thought that A Man Without a Country was written after the war and was based on a Confederate officer/citizen who refused to live in a re-united US and refused to emigrate to another nation.



 Posted: Sat Jun 1st, 2013 08:17 am
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  The deportation of Clement Vallandigham to southern territory did not calm the waters for General Burnside. In the days that followed, protests against his actions by prominent politicians raised the heat on him.

  On 29 May 1863, General Burnside offered his resignation to Mr. Lincoln. It was not accepted. Indeed, Mr. Lincoln supported his actions. General Burnside, who had commanded the Department of the Ohio since 25 March, then returned to his vigorous policy of suppressing dissent by closing the CHICAGO TIMES, as well as the JONESBORO GAZETTE, on this date (01 June) in 1863. This caused further protests by the mayor of Chicago, among others, but Mr. Lincoln did not intervene.

  While all of this turmoil was taking place, Mr. Vallandigham's southern hosts were less than  thrilled to receive him. He was transported to Richmond, but his stay there was short. On 02 June, he left (Under guard) for Wilmington, NC. He soon boarded a blockade runner that was bound for Bermuda, and left the territory of the CSA.

  Four months earlier, on 26 January 1863, General Burnside had offered to resign as commanding general of the AOP and, in that case, Mr. Lincoln had accepted his resignation. Clearly, General Burnside found greater support from above, as well as greater success, in his campaign to suppress free speech of citizens than in his effort to command the AOP. That had been a task that even he realized was beyond his capabilities.



 Posted: Sat Jun 1st, 2013 10:26 pm
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Unfortunately to a certain extent I agree with Burnside's activities towards the press, but not because he was trying to suppress voices of dissent. I'm looking at it from a different angle, one I doubt Burnside considered. Some of the best spies of the war weren't spies at all, they were newspapers. You can look at stories of generals getting ahold of the other sides newspapers to find out what's going on in the opposing army. And that seemed to continue throughout the war. Hell, it still happens today. My baby sister is active duty Navy and I saw in the last few years where she would say her ship was going to deploy, but couldn't tell us where to because of orders to keep that a secret. Only to discover the exact destination from national news the day her ship set sail. Obviously someone talked and the news agencies saw no possible problems in telling where the ship was going even though their shows could be picked up internationally and anyone who might want to consider an attack on the ship would know where to look



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